ENTOLOMA: general characters

Entoloma species have pink gills and a pink to pinkish brown sporeprint. The spores are angular under the microscope.

unterseite eines rötlings Sporenabwurf Sporen im mikroskop

HABITUS

tricholomatoid sinuatum TRICHOLOMATOID
The fruitbodies resemble a Tricholoma: Cap and stem fleshy; cap usually with an umbo; gills adnate-emarginate; stem relatively firm and cylindrical of broadened towards base
mycenoid

MYCENOID
Fruitbodies resemble a Mycena species: cap bell-shaped or conical, thin-fleshed; gills ascending, narrowly adnate to almost free; stem long and slender. The cap can be glabrous, as is the case in most Nolanea species, or fibrous to scaly, like in many Leptonia and Inopilus species.

collybioid2 collybioid

COLLYBIOID
Cap convex, usually slightly depressed at center and with inbend margin; gills adnate to slightly decurret; stem fibrous. The cap surface is glabrous (e.g. in sect. Polita) orscaly (as in many Leptonia species).

undeatum

OMPHALINOID
Cap usually depressed at center to funnel-shaped; gill decurrent on stem; stem slender. Cap surface glabrous or fibrous to scaly.

albotomentosum

PLEUROTOID OR CREPIDOTOID
Stem reduced, laterally inserted of even lacking; cap usually flattened, and circular to kidney shaped when seen from above.

SPORES AND CYSTIDIA

SPORE SHAPE
1. isodiametrical, 6-angled. 2. subisodiametrical, 7-angled. 3. heterodiametrical, 6-angled. 4. star-shaped or cruciform. 5. cuboid. 6. many-angled, nodulose

sporenvorm

Micrographs of spores (courtecy and © G. Gates & D. Ratkovsky)

A: cruciform, B: cuboid. C, D, E: isodiametrical 5-6-angled

F: heterodiametrical, 5-angled, G: heterodiametrical, 6-angled, H: heterodiametrical, (6-)7-angled, I: many-angled to nodulose

CYSTIDIAL SHAPE
1. cylindrical 2. clavate 3. sphaeropedunculate 4. vesicular 5. fusiform (spindle-shaped) 6. lageniform (bottle-shaped) 7. utriform 8. lecithiform 9. tibiiform 10. moliniform 11. flexuous 12. mucronate) 13. rostrate 14. capitate 15. septate


PILEIPELLIS

CUTIS
made up of repent hyphae
left to right: cutis, ixocutis, with well-differentiated subcutis

Pileipellis with ascending hyphae:

trichoderm ixotrichoderm hymeniderm calliderm

TRANSITIONAL TYPES:
Transitions between a cutis and a trichoderm frequently occur

overg.1 overg2 overg3
pigmente

PIGMENTS
Pigments can be present in different ways:
- on the hyphal wall as crusts and patches (incrusting)
- inside the hy[hae. dissolved or in granules (intracellular or vacuolar)
- iin the hyphal wall (parietal)
- be careful that often combinations of these type occur in the same time
---click here for the nice micrographs of Genevieve Gates---

 
STRUCTURE OF TRAMA

The structure of the trama varies from one group to another. Some types::

- a structure of short, cylindrical or inflated elements, about 30-100 µm long, often constricted at the septa, which is typical for subgenus Entoloma

- a structure of long, fusiform elements, 150-300 µm long, typical for subgenus Nolanea

CLAMP-CONNECTIONS

The occurrence of clamp-connections, especially at the base of the basidia, is very important tool for the classification.Ripe basidia with a rounded base usually did not have a basal clamps. Those with a knick in the base usually didhave a basal clamp. One should look carefully in the hymenium for young basidia, preferably after staining the hyphael walls in Congo-red (see also the technical page)

schnalle schnalle basidia